China has greatly expanded and improved its surveillance program in recent years from 194 sites in 2003 to 329 in 2005, and increased the populace groups covered. More data sources are considered now, including human population size estimation data, special studies and behavioural surveillance. The new numbers should not mask the known fact that HIV infections are on the rise. New attacks are increasing by 70,000 each year. An upward trend is seen if the numbers for 2003 are recalculated using more total data and better estimates of the size of groups vulnerable to being infected. There is absolutely no room for complacency clearly. Intensified prevention initiatives are had a need to stop the further spread of HIV in China also to keep the overall HIV prevalence low.